January 08, 2020

Output Gap

Output gap are turning disinflationary.

Published quarterly by the Bank of Japan and Cabinet Office. Cabinet Office estimates updated till the quarter of July-September 2019. Bank of Japan estimates updated till the quarter of July-September 2019 (Bank of Japan estimates published on January 8th, 2020)

Recent data trend

Estimates of the output gap in the Japanese economy are turning disinflationary. The Bank of Japan (BoJ) estimate the output gap to be 1.0% of the potential GDP in the July-September quarter of 2019. While it is still a positive gap, indicating Japanese economy is still running at a full capacity and some, the gap has shrunk from the recent peak of 2.1% in the January-March quarter of 2018. The positive and rising out put gap was once a poster child for the BoJ governor Kuroda who referred to ...

To read more, please become a our Standard subscriber.

Start a subscription with 30-days Free Trial

If you are already a JMA subscriber please

Brief overview of "Output Gap"

Output Gap measures the difference between actual GDP of the economy and the highest sustainable GDP. The latter is called potential GDP, and the growth in the potential GDP is called potential GDP growth. The output gap is usually measured as a percentage of the potential GDP. 

The output gap is an important indicator for policymakers as it helps them to determine an appropriate policy for the economy. A positive output gap indicates a possible inflationary pressure within the economy and vice versa. It is also important for policymakers to understand the source of growth, either labour, capital or productivity. The Bank of Japan publishes a breakdown of growth by estimating contributions from Total Factor Productivity (TFP), labour and capital. 

In the recent history, Japan has experienced the severest negative output gap, exceeding more than 7% to GDP in early 2009 after the Lehman shock. Since then, the output gap has gradually closed, reaching zero in early 2014. However, since then, the output gap has remained steady. For the Japanese economy to experience a reflation, the output gap probably needs to further rise towards positive territory. Japan's potential growth rate has been on a gradual decline since the recent peak of 4 to 5% growth in the mid-1980s. Most recently, the potential growth rate is estimated to be close to zero. 

For more information, please visit the Cabinet Office website and the BoJ website.

For the estimation methodology employed by the BoJ, please see here.

Output Gap and Potential GDP based on SNA93

Next Release Date: April 3rd, 2020 (BoJ estimate)



Suggested Pages

Gross Domestic Product

The Japanese economy grew by 0.4% quarter on quarter (QoQ) in the July-September 2019, marking the 4th consecutive quarter of positive growth. The year on year growth of 1.7% is the highest since the

View Page

Corporate Profits

The profitability of Japanese manufacturers continued to deteriorate in the July-September quarter of 2019. According to the quarterly Corporate Statistics, operating profits of Japanese manufacturer

View Page

Industrial Production

Industrial production continued its plunge in November 2019, falling by 0.9% month on month (MoM), following a steep 4.5% MoM decline in October. The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), t

View Page

Wage and Hours Worked

The April wage report was consistent with our view that wages in Japan are finally on the rise. The preliminary estimate for the month showed that regular wages in Japan rose by 1.2% year on year (Yo

View Page